Novel Modulators of Potassium Channels to Treat Fragile X

Novel Modulators of Potassium Channels to Treat Fragile X

With funding from FRAXA, the Yale University team of Leonard Kaczmarek, PhD showed that the firing pattern of suditory neurons in response to repeated stimulation is severely abnormal in Fragile X mice. Based on these results, they are collaborating with the UK-based company Autifony to develop advanced compounds which may reverse these deficits.

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Defining the Subcellular Specificity of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor (mGluR5) Antagonists

Defining the Subcellular Specificity of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor (mGluR5) Antagonists

With $217,500 in grants from FRAXA Research Foundation, Dr. Karen O’Malley and team studied the function of mGluR5 when it is inside cells. Many of the symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) are thought to arise due to overactive metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) signaling, which is normally opposed by the protein missing in FXS, Fragile X Protein (FMRP).

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Altered Neural Excitability and Chronic Anxiety in a Mouse Model of Fragile X

Altered Neural Excitability and Chronic Anxiety in a Mouse Model of Fragile X

With a $35,000 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation in 2016, Dr. Peter Vanderklish at Scripps Research Institute, and colleagues, explored the basis of anxiety in Fragile X syndrome.

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Development of a High-Content Synapse Assay to Screen Therapeutics for Fragile X Syndrome

Development of a High-Content Synapse Assay to Screen Therapeutics for Fragile X Syndrome

With a $45,000 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation in 2009, Dr. Mark Bear and Dr. Asha Bhakar used High Content Screening (HCS) to develop an assay sensitive to the effect of the FXS genotype. This project was funded in full by NIH after the first year.

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Which is the right FMRP for Therapeutic Development of Fragile X Syndrome?

Which is the right FMRP for Therapeutic Development of Fragile X Syndrome?

With a 2-year, $90,000 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation over 2016-17, Dr. Samie Jaffrey at Weill Medical College of Cornell University explored which FMRP isoform is the best target to treat Fragile X syndrome.

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Biomarker Discovery and Validation for Fragile X Syndrome

Biomarker Discovery and Validation for Fragile X Syndrome

With a $60,000 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation in 2015 that was renewed in 2016, Dr. Eric Klann of New York University will research biomarkers in fraile X syndrome and how to translate these markers from mouse models to human patients.

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Fragile X Mutant Mouse Facility

Fragile X Mutant Mouse Facility

With $375,000 in grants from the FRAXA Research Foundation since 2009, Dr. David Nelson has developed an impressive array of advanced mouse models of Fragile X, at Baylor College of Medicine. These models are available to investigators worldwide on request. This resource has been essential for a broad, rapid distribution of Fragile X and related gene mouse models and has increased the pace of Fragile X research.

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Abnormalities of Synaptic Plasticity in the Fragile X Amygdala

Abnormalities of Synaptic Plasticity in the Fragile X Amygdala

With a $110,050 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation from 2005-2016, Dr. Sumantra Chattarji at the National Center for Biological Sciences researched how the amygdala is affected by Fragile X syndrome. Results published.

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Fruit Flies to Model and Test Fragile X Treatments

Fruit Flies to Model and Test Fragile X Treatments

Dr. Jongens and his collaborators have found an insulin-like protein in the fly brain that is overexpressed in the Fragile X mutant fly, leading to increased activity of the insulin signaling pathway. Furthermore, they found that certain behavioral patterns in the Fragile X flies can be rescued by expressing the FX gene just in insulin producing neurons in the fly brain. In the mutant, there are other changes in the signaling pathways, including a decrease in cAMP and elevation in PI3K, mTOR, Akt and ERK activity. They now propose to study 2 medicines used for diabetes: pioglitazone (increases cAMP and decreases Akt and ERK) and metformin (inhibits mTOR), in flies and mice to validate the potential efficacy of these novel therapeutics for Fragile X.

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Inhibitors of STEP as a Novel Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome

Inhibitors of STEP as a Novel Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome

With a $349,000 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation from 2008-2015, Dr. Paul Lombroso and his team at Yale University researched if inhibiting STEP could reduce behavioral abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome. Results published.

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GABA-A Receptor in Fragile X Syndrome

GABA-A Receptor in Fragile X Syndrome
FRAXA Research Foundation funded studies under the direction of Dr. Frank Kooy at the University of Antwerp in Belgium. $210,000 GrantsFrank Kooy, PhD Principal Investigator University of Antwerp, Belgium FRAXA Research Grants $45,000 in 2010 $100,000 in 2007-8 $65,000 in 1999-2000 by Frank Kooy, PhD Absence of a single protein, FMRP, in Fragile X patients leads to a cascade of molecular events in brain cells. To find out which other genes are involved the clinical symptoms, we have been looking for genes that are differentially expressed in Fragile X syndrome. One of the genes specifically underexpressed is part of the GABAA receptor. As GABA-A receptors are the main inhibitory receptors in the brain, involved in processes like anxiety, mood swings, sleep and cognition, processes also disturbed in Fragile X patients, we followed up on this finding. In subsequent studies, we demonstrated abnormalities in expression levels of multiple parts of the GABA-ARead more

Endocannabinoid Mediated Synaptic Plasticity in Fragile X Mice

Endocannabinoid Mediated Synaptic Plasticity in Fragile X Mice

With a $90,000 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation over two years, Drs. Olivier Manzoni and Daniela Neuhofer researched the relationship between Fragile X syndrome and the areas of the brain that are involved in reward processing, regulation of emotional behavior and emotional memory as well as attention, planning and working memory.

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Evaluation of CamKII Dependent Regulation of mGluR5-Homer Scaffolds as a Potential Therapeutic for Fragile X Syndrome

Evaluation of CamKII Dependent Regulation of mGluR5-Homer Scaffolds as a Potential Therapeutic for Fragile X Syndrome

With a $474,300 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation from 2000-2013, Dr. Kimberly Huber and her team at the University of Texas conducted several studies on the relationship between mGluR5 and Fragile X syndrome. Dr. Huber made the original discovery of the mGluR Theory of Fragile X when she was a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Dr. Mark Bear, with her first FRAXA grant in 2000.

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Small Rho GTPases, a Potential Therapeutic Target for Fragile X Syndrome

Small Rho GTPases, a Potential Therapeutic Target for Fragile X Syndrome

With $384,345 in grants from FRAXA Research Foundation, Dr. MariVi Tejada from the University of Houston focused on a particularly promising point of intervention in pathways of brain receptors, and tested several potential therapeutic compounds in an attempt to rescue function in the mouse model of Fragile X.

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Evaluation of CamKII Dependent Regulation of mGluR5-Homer Scaffolds as a Potential Therapeutic for Fragile X Syndrome

Evaluation of CamKII Dependent Regulation of mGluR5-Homer Scaffolds as a Potential Therapeutic for Fragile X Syndrome

Dr. Huber made the original discovery of the mGluR Theory of Fragile X when she was a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Dr. Mark Bear, with her first FRAXA grant in 2000. Dr. Huber has received $474,300 in grants from FRAXA Research Foundation since then, researching molecular mechanisms and developmental switches in Fragile X syndrome. She has worked with 4 FRAXA Postdoctoral Fellows (Elena Nosyreva, PhD in 2006; Jennifer Roseni, PhD in 2007; Tong Zang, PhD in 2010-2011; and Weirui Guo, PhD in 2012-2013) and has received supporting funds from The Meadows Foundation of/for Texas.

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Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 and Fragile X

Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 and Fragile X

With $208,000 in funds from FRAXA Research Foundation, Dr. Richard Jope and his team at the University of Miami tested whether newly developed, highly specific inhibitors of GSK3 can reduce behavioral abnormalities in Fragile X mice.

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Synaptic Actin Signaling Pathways in Fragile X

Synaptic Actin Signaling Pathways in Fragile X

With a $163,356 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation in 2010-12, Dr. Scott Soderling and Dr. Hwan Kim at Duke University bred the standard mouse model of Fragile X syndrome to their lines of mice that express reduced levels of several key proteins that modulate synaptic actin. These compound mutant mice were compared to FXS mice to determine if genetically impairing pathways to the actin cytoskeleton can rescue deficits in the FXS mice.

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A Metabolomic Drug Efficacy Index to Test Treatments in the Fragile X Mouse

A Metabolomic Drug Efficacy Index to Test Treatments in the Fragile X Mouse

Dr. Davidovic has been examining changes in metabolism in various brain regions that are affected in Fragile X patients. She has defined a brain-specific metabolic signature of FXS and is testing treatment strategies to restore normal levels of these metabolites.

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Inherited Channelopathies in Cortical Circuits of Fmr1 KO Mice

Inherited Channelopathies in Cortical Circuits of Fmr1 KO Mice
With this $90,000 award, Dr. Zhang and Principal Investigator Dr. Andreas Frick at Neurocentre Magendie in France investigated channelopathies using Fragile X mice. $90,000 GrantNeurocentre Magendie 2010-11 FRAXA Research Grant $90,000 over 2 Years Andreas Frick, PhD; Principal Investigator Yu Zhang, PhD; FRAXA Postdoctoral Fellow Many other proteins are misregulated as a result of the absence of FMRP. It is known that many ion channels, the pores in the cell membrane which allow neurons to conduct electrical impulses, have altered levels in Fragile X. This state is sometime called a “channelopathy” in the pharma world. This group is studying the effect of specific alterations in ion channels, and potential therapeutic effects of drugs which open and close these channels. The mammalian neocortex is central for processes as diverse as sensory information processing, perception or control of motor activity, and cortical defects have devastating neurological and psychiatric consequences. In humans, the consequences of FragileRead more

Defining the Subcellular Specificity of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor (mGluR5) Antagonists

Defining the Subcellular Specificity of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor (mGluR5) Antagonists

With $109,500 in grants from FRAXA Research Foundation over 5 years, Dr. Karen O’Malley of Washington University researches the relationship between Fragile X syndrome and the functions of mGluR5.

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Serotonergic Rescue of Synaptic Plasticity in FMR1 Knockout Mice

Serotonergic Rescue of Synaptic Plasticity in FMR1 Knockout Mice

With $306,000 in grants from FRAXA Research Foundation, Dr. Julius Zhu from the University of Virginia examined the effects of several drugs such as Buspar and Abilify which manipulate specific serotonin receptors and the effect that has on synaptic plasticity (LTP and LTD).

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Efficient Screening for Pharmaceutical Amelioration of FXS Behavioral Deficits in Drosophila

Efficient Screening for Pharmaceutical Amelioration of FXS Behavioral Deficits in Drosophila

With a $112,250 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation over 3 years, Dr. Efthimios Skoulakis and his team from the Institute of Cellular and Developmental Biology conducted the first FRAXA project in Greece, where they developed a speedy new test for learning problems in fruit flies, which allowed them to test a number of drugs that are potential Fragile X treatments.

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Channelopathies: Altered Ion Channels in Fragile X Syndrome

Channelopathies: Altered Ion Channels in Fragile X Syndrome

With a $95,000 grant from FRAXA Research Foundation from 2010-2011, Dr. Daniel Johnston and Dr. Darrin Brager at the University of Texas at Austin investigated alterations in ion channels in Fragile X syndrome. They explored potential therapeutic effects of drugs which open and close these channels. Results published.

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The Slack Potassium Ion channel as a Therapeutic Target for Fragile X Syndrome

A paper on this work has been published in Journal of Neuroscience on 2010 August 4: Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for rapid experience-dependent regulation of the potassium channel Kv3.1b by Leonard Kaczmarek, PhD and Jack Kronengold, PhD Our laboratory has investigated how the excitability of neurons becomes modified in the absence of the FMRP protein. We have found that the levels of two potassium channels, termed Slack and Kv3.1 are altered in mice that lack this protein. We have made significant progress in identifying novel pharmacological activators of the Slack potassium channel for potential therapeutic intervention in FXS individuals. The Slack potassium channel is widely expressed in the brain. Using neurons of the central auditory system, our laboratory has demonstrated that Slack is required for accurate timing of action potentials in response to synaptic stimuli. This channel is activated by the FMRP protein through a direct association

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